辅音

与开口元音相反,辅音是闭合音。 这意味着通过嘴部的部分彼此接触(或非常接近接触),来自肺部的气流存在某种类型的阻碍,从而封闭自由空气流。

在英语中大约有24个辅音,这些辅音被分为五个主要组:

  1. Plosives: sounds that cannot be sustained and which have a 'popping' quality. For example: /p/ as in pea and /b/ as in boy.
  2. Nasals: sounds in which the escaping air passes through the nasal cavity. For example: /m/ as in map and /n/ as in nap.
  3. Fricatives: as air exits through the mouth, it forces its way through a narrowed gap to create turbulence or friction. For example: /s/ as in so and /f/ as in fit.
  4. Affricates: these are combination sounds that begin with a complete obstruction formed by the tongue tip contacting the alveolar ridge, before the air is released slowly with friction. For example: /ʧ/ as in chop and /ʤ/ as in jam.
  5. Approximants: a group of four sustainable sounds: /w/ as in we, /r/ as in red, /l/ as in let and /j/ as in you.

除了上述五个主要分类之外,可以进一步描述辅音的发声,发音部位和发音方式:

发声

发声是指在辅音的发音过程中声带是否在振动。 如果声带没有振动,则是没有声音的;如果它们在振动,那么则是是有声音的。

发音部位

这是指两个发音部位组合在一起在声道中的位置, 有以下八个:

Place of articulation
  1. 双唇音:双唇在一起发出的声音.
  2. 唇齿音: 唇和齿在一起发出的声音.
  3. 齿音: 舌头与齿接触发出的声音.
  4. 牙槽嵴:舌尖向上切牙后面的牙龈脊移动。
  5. 齿龈后音:舌尖靠近牙槽嵴后面的位置,朝向嘴的后部。
  6. 腭:舌头向口腔顶部移动(上颚)。
  7. 软腭:舌头后部向软腭动。
  8. 声门:英语中唯一的声门辅音是/ h /正如在how中。 严格来说,这并不涉及两个发音器组合在一起。 声音只是由空气通过声带(声门)之间的间隙排出而引起的摩擦。

方式

这表明两个发音部位的接触类型,并且仅由上述五个主要组定义:爆破音,鼻音,擦音,破擦音和通音。

 

下表总结了英语的24个主要辅音,包括发音,位置和方式。 点击链接观看每个辅音如何制作的简短视频。

语音符号 案例 方式 发音部位 视频
/p/ pot 爆破音 双唇 How to pronounce the /p/ sound
/b/ bet 爆破音 双唇 How to pronounce the /b/ sound
/d/ dog 爆破音 齿槽 How to pronounce the /d/ sound
/t/ top 爆破音 齿槽 How to pronounce the /t/ sound
/k/ kit 爆破音 软腭 How to pronounce the /k/ sound
/g/ got 爆破音 软腭 How to pronounce the /g/ sound
/f/ fog 擦音 唇齿音 How to pronounce the /f/ sound
/v/ vat 擦音 唇齿音 How to pronounce the /v/ sound
/ɵ/ thick 擦音 齿音 How to pronounce the /ɵ/ sound
/ð/ that 擦音 齿音 How to pronounce the /ð/ sound
/s/ sat 擦音 齿槽 How to pronounce the /s/ sound
/z/ zoo 擦音 齿槽 How to pronounce the /z/ sound
/ʃ/ shut 擦音 齿龈后音 How to pronounce the /ʃ/ sound
/ʒ/ measure 擦音 齿龈后音 How to pronounce the /ʒ/ sound
/h/ help 擦音 声门 How to pronounce the /h/ sound
/ʧ/ church 破擦音 齿龈后音 How to pronounce the /ʧ/ sound
/ʤ/ jump 破擦音 齿龈后音 How to pronounce the /ʤ/ sound
/m/ mom 鼻音 双唇 How to pronounce the /m/ sound
/n/ nod 鼻音 齿龈音 How to pronounce the /n/ sound
/ŋ/ thing 鼻音 软腭 How to pronounce the /ŋ/ sound
/l/ lot 通音 齿龈音 How to pronounce the /l/ sound
/r/ rat 通音 齿龈后音 How to pronounce the /r/ sound
/w/ won 通音 双唇 How to pronounce the /w/ sound
/j/ you 通音 上腭 How to pronounce the /j/ sound